Articles tagged with: week 3

Chapter 8: Campbell

on Thursday, 28 April 2011. Posted in Student Notes


This chapter of the textbook spoke specifically of the history of Television, addressing topics such as viewership, cable television, special programming, and the development of television into a mass medium. A good portion of the chapter focuses on television regulation and control, as pertaining to what can be shown on TV in general and what can be shown specifically for profit. Overall, chapter 8 was a very broad overview of the development of television into what it is today.

“Encoding and Decoding in the Television Discourse” by Stuart Hall

on Tuesday, 26 April 2011. Posted in Student Notes



Hall examines “the whole mass communication process” where the object of production is a message. This message is in the form of a “message-form” code, as has been defined in class, that operates in its context. The illustration on page 108 summarizes it well, showing how it is a cycle whereby a production company inserts codes into its product that each individual audience member decodes based on its context and their experiences. Producers are influenced by other media and the ideologies of society at large, which in turn affects the codes they write into new products. Most of this article is key terms, which is here represented by my focus on them as opposed to the summary.


“Sex and the Single Girl” in Postfeminism The F Work on Television

on Monday, 25 April 2011. Posted in Student Notes



  • Defines Postfeminism, questions if a program can be both prowoman and antifeminist and asks how far have we come.
  • The portrayal of independent women are shown as unhappy because of their independence (such as in Ally McBeal)
  • One way to see how far society has come in regards to women is to look at the ways in which female desire and female pleasure are regulated and controlled
  • She approaches this through institutional, textual, and receptional Television studies from the beginning have been feminist because its goal is to understand television in its workings as a site for stories for and about women within patriarchy
  • It has consistently accounted for and analyzed female characters and female viewers and the choices they have The representation of the independent woman in US network television at the turn of the millennium is problematically postfeminist/antifeminist, such as in Ally McBeal (Kim’s thesis)
  • Television and the cultural space it creates serve as sites for struggle and are sites of negotiation
  • Female subjectivity is suspended in the relativism of postmodernity and women remain the objects of desire on television
  • Female characters have always negotiated the boundaries between private and public spheres



Ways of Seeing, Chapter 3

on Thursday, 21 April 2011. Posted in Student Notes


A man’s presence is dependent upon the power he embodies and this power is always exerted towards other. Woman’s presence expresses her attitude. This is done through such things as, gestures, voice, opinions, expressions, clothes, etc.

Men will think of this almost as a physical emanation. Women have become accustomed to considering the surveyor and the surveyed within themselves. “Her sense of being in herself is supplanted [to take the place of] by a sense of being appreciated as herself by others” (Berger, 46).

I took this to mean that a woman becomes more concerned with how others view her, therefore replacing her own concern for herself. Women watch others watching them. This happens because men survey women before treating them, more simply put, men act and women appear.

Common Sense, Myth, News, and Realism

on Thursday, 21 April 2011. Posted in Student Notes


In Campbell's article he describes, Journalistic “Common Sense,” and its reflection of the Myths, Stereotypes of the News Journalists and how they affect the News and its influence on the American Peoples. (page 13), Social/Political/Culture research, “… reflects a likelihood that contemporary racism in America is being fostered by the news media's “commonsense” myths despite even the best intentions of journalist caught in a system dominated by majority culture values and sensibilities.” Campbell's argument is to understand how the journalistic process helps to convey a perspective of the 'norm middle-class white man.' He argues for the realistic and truths that aren't included in the news due to the audience and preconceived notions of what is idealistic for the mass American Culture. He identifies these myths, and understandable concludes that the news is an institution that fosters racism and values cultural “traditional” common sense and biases that defy and contradict the 'real.'

Campbell  illustrates the demand and provisional portrayal of the news anchor as a biased perspective of the 'white man.' He illustrates this theme in journalism through historical and economic ties of race and class. For the hiring process of news journalists it is known that they must adopt the perspective and values of the white man in order to be hired, this said, the obvious construction of the news and its biases are defective.  This creates a social construct for the news media and understandably argues the constructions of what it means for the news to be 'unbiased' when it 'realistically' is. Today on the news, after reading this article I find that the theme of the 'white man' is all around and that cultural stereotypes perceive and illustrate the perspectives that are chosen to be shown by the news and the journalists point of view.

Representation & the News Narrative

on Monday, 18 April 2011. Posted in Student Notes

notes prepared by Taylor Senegal

Tuchman argues, “By seeming not to arrange time and space, news film claims to present facts, not interpretations.” Although the material filmed may be real, the way in which it is filmed persuades the way viewers perceive it. The camera’s perspective influences the information’s presentation. Tuchman refers to talking and touching distance. He differentiates between the impartial appearance of the former as opposed to the dramatic impact of the latter. The way in which reporters are framed in symbolic locations and appear to be near ongoing activity also affects viewers’ perception of events. Due to television’s ability to cover more dimensions of perception than other mediums, more people believe its information is fact.

Ways of Seeing, Chapter 3

on Monday, 18 April 2011. Posted in Student Notes


• Man’s presence-dependent on the promise of power
• Woman’s presence expressing her attitude
o Defines what can/can’t be done to her
• Surveyor vs. surveyed
o Men act and women appear
o Men look at women, women watch themselves being looked at
• Woman blamed and punished by being made “subservient” to the male
o Ex. Rooted in religion
§ Adam and Eve
o Shame became a display
• Naked vs. Nude
o Nakedness created in the “mind of the beholder”
o P.50 “She is not naked as she is, she naked as the spectator sees             it”
o Naked is to be without clothes, nude is a form of art
o La Grande Odalisque (Ingres 1780-1867)
§ Her body arranged to show it to he who is looking at the
§ “Picture made to appeal to his sexuality, having nothing to
do with hers”